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Controlled Substances

Drug Facts

Amphetamines

  • Street Names:  speed, uppers, bennies, crank, ice, crystal, meth
  • Possible Side Effects:  increased alertness, excitation, increased blood pressure and pulse rate, insomnia, excessive activity, anorexia
  • Possible Withdrawal Effects:  apathy, prolonged sleep, irritability, depression, disorientation, agitation then depression
  • Possible Effects on Breastfeeding:  anorexia/poor nutrition, reported to have caused jitteriness, irritability, and sleeplessness
  • Effects on Pregnancy and Newborn:  spontaneous abortion, preterm labor and delivery, cardiac abnormalities, microcephaly, biliary atresia, poor coordination and responsiveness, and cleft palate

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Barbiturates

  • Street Names:  ludes, downers, reds, yellows, barbs
  • Possible Side Effects:  slurred speech, disorientation, drunken behavior without odor or alcohol, drowsiness, possibility of overdose, especially when used with alcohol.  Overdose can lead to respiratory depression and hypotension resulting from hypoxia.
  • Possible Withdrawal Effects:  anxiety, insomnia, tremors, seizures, anorexia/poor nutrition
  • Possible Effects on Breastfeeding:  irritability, restlessness, poor feeding, high-pitched cry, impaired neurobehavioral abilities, hypertonicity, respiratory depression, tremors, sleep disturbances
  • Effects on Pregnancy and Newborn:  decreased sleeping and sucking; mothers on prescriptions for analeptic doses:  infants more likely to be depressed and difficult to rouse.

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Cocaine

  • Street Names:  crack, coke, flake, snow, nose candy
  • Possible Side Effects:  dilated pupils with large amounts; runny nose and sinus/nasal problems; may lead to hallucinations, convulsions, and death; large doses may cause paranoia and violent behavior
  • Possible Withdrawal Effects:  depression; prolonged sleep; lethargy; disorientation; apathy; tremors; intense craving for the drug; irritability (frequently combined with other drugs, such as alcohol, marijuana, heroin, or other sedatives, to avoid or alleviate withdrawal effects; sense of euphoria with increased energy; excitation; anxiety; insomnia; increased blood pressure and pulse rate; irritability
  • Possible Effects on Breastfeeding:  cocaine can remain in mother's milk for up to 72 hours after using the drug; infants may have vomiting, diarrhea, and general irritability.  There have been reports of acute cocaine intoxication in infants whose mothers' snorted cocaine while breastfeeding.  This may lead to seizures, strokes, and possibly death.
  • Effects on Pregnancy and Newborn:  preterm labor and delivery; intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): low birth weight, small head circumference, stroke in utero; structural birth defects: genitourinary, extremities, cardiovascular: reduced blood flow to placenta and uterus, which reduces oxygen and nutrients to fetus and interferes with placental functioning, and increases uterine contractions; neurobehavioral: abnormalities, high-pitched cry, hyper-irritability, increased startle reflex, abnormal sleep patterns, poor feeding patterns, tremors, poor state control, hypertonicity, poor bonding, increased risk for SIDS

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Heroin

  • Street Names:  horse, smack, junk
  • Possible Side Effects:  watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, anorexia, irritability
  • Possible Withdrawal Effects:  tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating, constricted pupils, euphoria, respiratory depression, slurred speech
  • Possible Effects on Breastfeeding:  anemia, hepatitis, bacterial endocarditis
  • Effects on Pregnancy and Newborn:  abruption of placenta, eclampsia, placental insufficiency, premature labor and delivery, fetal distress, possible drowsiness and failure to thrive, neonatal withdrawal, restlessness, tremors, disturbed sleep patterns, poor feeding, stuffy nose, vomiting, diarrhea, high-pitched cry, fever, irregular breathing, seizures, Respiratory Distress Syndrome, SIDS, Strabismus, Hyaline Membrane Disease, Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): low birth weight, brain hemorrhage

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LSD

  • Street Names:  acid, microdot
  • Possible Side Effects:  anxiety, panic, increased blood pressure and pulse
  • Possible Withdrawal Effects:  dilated pupils; sweating; distorted sense of sight, hearing, touch; distorted image of self and time perception; unpredictable flashbacks
  • Possible Effects on Breastfeeding:  not recommended - no data available.  The relatively low molecular weight should allow its passage into milk.  Drug effects are produced at low concentrations.
  • Effects on Pregnancy and Newborn:  Illicit LSD usually contains a variety of other chemicals, such as amphetamines.  The effect on pregnancy is considered to be determined by the particular chemical involved rather than pure LSD.

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Methamphetamine

National Institute on Drug Abuse InfoFacts:  Methamphetamine

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Marijuana

  • Street Names:  pot, dope, grass, weed, hash, joint, reefer
  • Possible Side Effects:  increased heart rate, impaired short-term memory, altered sense of time
  • Possible Withdrawal Effects:  insomnia, hyperactivity, anorexia, sweating, altered perceptions, red eyes, dry mouth, reduced concentration and coordination, euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, inflammation and abnormalities of the lungs
  • Possible Effects on Breastfeeding:  rapidly transmitted into breast milk and remains there for prolonged period; specific effects on infant unknown
  • Effects on Pregnancy and Newborn:  intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): low birth weight; shorter in length, irritability, tremors, abnormal visual functioning, SIDS

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PCP

  • Street Names:  peace, pill, angel dust, hog
  • Possible Side Effects:  unpredictable behavior, emotional instability, violent behavior, agitation, confusion, feelings of grandiosity, impaired coordination, incoherent speech
  • Possible Withdrawal Effects:  prolonged anxiety and depression, flashbacks
    PCP contains many contaminants which can adversely affect the pregnancy.
  • Possible Effects on Breastfeeding:  poor visual coordination, abnormal muscular tension, rapid state changes
  • Effects on Pregnancy and Newborn:  extreme jitteriness; significant activity changes have been reported.

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