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Rabies

Remember the 3 'B's of Rabies Prevention!

  • Bats and Raccoons
  • Bite Safety
  • Be Vaccinated!

Rabies is a deadly viral disease that infects the brain and spinal cord of mammals. The virus is spread from exposure to saliva or nervous tissue from an infected animal, usually through a bite. Scratches or saliva contact with a mucous membrane are also considered as exposure risks. Rabies is preventable if proper treatment is given before symptoms occur, but is considered to be fatal once symptoms are present.

The primary public health concern is to prevent people from developing rabies after a possible exposure. Any bite or scratch from an animal should be checked by a physician and reported to the county health department. Dogs, cats, and ferrets that bite or scratch a person will be required to undergo quarantine for a period of 10 days. The observation for clinical signs of rabies developing in the animal during the quarantine provides complete assurance for the person bitten or scratched that the animal did not infect the person from the bite. Unlike pets, wildlife species that bite or scratch cannot be quarantined because they may shed the virus longer than 10 days. Rabies tests can be performed in the laboratory on deceased animals that do not qualify for quarantine.

In Alabama, there are two different strains of rabies virus: the raccoon variant and the bat variant. The raccoon strain can infect other wildlife, such as foxes, coyotes, and skunks; but more importantly, it can infect peopleís pets. Vaccination of dogs, cats, and ferrets is required by law. Vaccinations for other species, such as horses and livestock are also available and recommended. Vaccinating animals help ensure protection should they unknowingly be exposed to a rabid animal. Other simple prevention methods is to keep pets properly confined or on leashes, avoid leaving trash or leftover pet food uncovered which may attract wildlife, and avoid handling bats.

The bat variant can also infect pets or people. Bats present a unique risk of rabies because their bites may be unknown or leave insignificant marks. If you should have bats in your house or bedroom, please contact your physician or local health department for consultation.

Quick Steps for Prevention:

1. Avoid being bitten or scratched. Get medical attention immediately and report to local     health department.
2. Donít approach stray or injured animals or wildlife.
3. Donít handle bats.
4. Keep your pets and livestock vaccinated.

Frequently Asked Questions About Rabies

Rabies in Alabama

  • Raccoons make up 50 - 60% of all Rabies cases every year.
  • Every year, Alabama participates in an Oral Rabies Vaccine (ORV) Program to control the spread of Rabies in wildlife. For more information, see our Frequently Asked Questions about the ORV Program.
  • Maps of confirmed Rabies cases in Alabama in 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009
  • Map of confirmed animal Rabies cases in Alabama in 2015
  • Laboratory confirmed Rabies cases in Alabama from 1950 - 2014

Rabies Resources

Physician and Provider Resources

  • To order vaccine, physicians can call Novartis at 1-877-683-4732 or Sanofi Pasteur at 1-800-822-2463 and complete request form.
  • To order HRIG, physicians can call Talecris at 1-800-243-4153 or Sanofi Pasteur at 1-800-822-2463 and complete request form.
  • For providers, the Rabies Prophylaxis Flyer can help determine what rabies treatment is recommended.
  • More information on the Rabies Titer can be found on the Kansas Rabies Lab Website.

Rabies Specimen Testing

Rabies Bite Manual

View the entire Rabies Bite Manual (8 MB) or by chapter below

Cover

Introduction

Rabies Overview

      Biology, Transmission, and Pathogenesis

      Incubation Period and Duration of Disease

Control Methods

      Assessing the Need for PEP

      Ordering PEP and Schedule

      Rabies Pre-exposure Vaccination for Humans

Animal Vaccination Protocols

      Management of Animals Exposed to Rabies

      Management of Animals that Bite Humans

Rabies Testing

      Tissue Sample Collection and Handling

      Rabies Specimen Acceptance Criteria

      Rabies Serology Testing for Humans

Importation and Interstate Movement of Animals

Rabies Control During a Disaster Response

Frequently Asked Questions About Rabies

Forms

Animal-related Injury or Damage Contacts

County Health Department Phone Numbers

ADPH Administrative Code - Chapter 420-4-4 Rabies Control Program Rules

Current FDA Licensed Rabies Vaccine

Certificate of Exemption from Rabies Vaccination Form

Alabama Rabies Law


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